Hand Plane – A tool to smooth and true wood surfaces, consisting of a blade fastened in frame at an angle with hand grips to slide it along the board. There are several different parts that make up a hand plane:
The Knob – A handle on the front portion of the hand plane that gives you more control when pushing the hand plane through the wood. The knob can be in the shape of a handle, or it can be more of a knob shape.
The Handle – The handle is the back grip of the hand place that is sued to push the plane across through the wood that you are hand planning. The handle is often curved and attached to the hand plane at a slight angle for a more comfortable grip.
The Frog – The frog is a metal plate that sits at an angle in the middle of the hand plane, where there is a notch to allow the plane iron (part of the planer that cuts the wood) to protrude. This is attached with screws and has an adjustment lever at the top of the frog. The adjustment level moves a set screw that will dictate the depth of the plane iron once installed.
Plane Iron – The plane iron is the cutting blade of the hand planer. This blade has a very sharp edge and protrudes from the middle of the bottom of the hand planer by a very small amount allowing for smoother planning. The plane iron is held in place on the frog, which allows for minor adjustments once the plane iron is mounted. The plane iron is then sandwiched between the plane iron cap and the lever cap to lock the plane iron in place and prevent the blade from shifting when the hand plane is in use.
Plane Iron Cap – This goes directly over the plane iron to hold it into place and keep the blade form pushing up when cutting through wood. The plane cap is held in place by the lever cap.
Lever Cap – A lever cap is the component that locks the plane iron, plane iron cap, and the frog together. The lever cap slips over the mounting screw, into which all of these pieces of the hand plane slide. The screw is then tightened with a screw driver to lock the plane iron in position.